Trisoma® - Science and Research of Bodywork

Swedish Massage This page is NOT medical advice! Refer to your health care provider for any questions about your health. This is only a tedious compendium for the curious of selected research that is accumulating about bodywork, massage and related preventive and complementary therapies. Click at left to skip to sections:

Pain - Local and Referred
Pain psychophysics is a complicated interaction of the body, and every signal may be processed differently at different times, or by different people. According to the Web site, the current theory of pain is the Gate control theory of pain, which describes a series of two-way biochemical exchanges among three major components of the nervous system: peripheral nerves, spinal cord and three regions of the brain. Peripheral nerves extend from the spinal cord to the skin, muscles, bones, joints and internal organs. Some peripheral nerve fibers end with receptors that respond to touch, pressure, vibration, cold and warmth. Other types of nerve fibers end with nociceptors (no-sih-SEP-turs) — which are receptors that detect actual or potential tissue damage. Nociceptors are most concentrated in areas of importance or prone to injury, such as fingers, toes, eyes and gonads. When nociceptors detect a potentially harmful stimulus, they relay messages in the form of electrical impulses along a peripheral nerve to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. In the spinal cord, chemical neurotransmitters released that activate other specialized nerve cells that act as gatekeepers, which filter the pain messages on their way to your brain. The pain messages travel up the spinal cord to the thalamus, which sorts the signals deep inside the brain, and forwards the messages simultaneously to three specialized regions of the brain: somatosensory cortex limbic system frontal cortex. The three regions of the brain process these signals and then the brain responds by sending messages to the spinal cord that modulate the incoming pain signals. For severe pain that is linked to bodily harm, such as when you touch a hot stove, the "gate" is wide open, and the messages take an express route to your brain. Weak pain messages, or long-term messages, may be filtered or blocked by the gate. Theoretically all pain messages may be modulated at or along the nerves, spine or brain. This gives opportunity for chemicals and manual manipulation to affect pain sensations. Nerve fibers that transmit touch also affect gatekeeper cells. This explains why rubbing a sore area makes it "feel" better. The signals of touch from the rubbing actually interfere with the transmission of pain signals. Messages can change within your peripheral nerves and spinal cord. Nerve cells in your spinal cord may release chemicals that intensify the pain, increasing the strength of the pain signal that reaches your brain. This is called wind-up or sensitization, where the nervous system amplifies and distorts pain. Inflammation at the site of injury may add to pain. Messages from your brain also affect the gate. Rather than just reacting to pain, the human brain actually sends messages that influence the perception of pain. Your brain may signal nerve cells to release natural painkillers, such as endorphins, enkephalins or cannabinoids.
Causes and types of pain
Pain perception and toleration can be affected by: physical position, emotional and psychological state (happiness or stress), memories of past pain experiences, upbringing, age, sex, beliefs and values, social and cultural influences, attitude, expectations. Acute pain and chronic pain can feel: tingling, jolting, burning, dull, aching, sharp, shooting, stabbing, boring, squeezing or throbbing. Chronic pain can be due to a chronic condition, or to neuropathy but sometimes there is no evidence of disease or damage to tissues. Post-amputation "phantom pain" from a body part no longer there has been recognized to actually originate in the brain.
Most medications as of 2009 disrupt pain signals to the brain, however new classes of drugs are being researched to invoke endogenous analgesia (EA), including the natural pain-relief cannabinoid receptors in the brain, or Stimulation of the production of endogenous cannabinoids, endorphins, serotonin and acetylcholine in the central nervous system may occur after a workout, intercourse or a good swedish massage. Biochemists and biomedical researchers are trying to develop patentable drugs that turn on the feeling high as if you smoked a marijuana joint.
Diffuse noxious inhibitory control. As of October 2010, the term conditioned pain modulation (CPM) has replaced the previous terms 'diffuse noxious inhibitory control' or 'DNIC-like' effects. Most of the work in this context was done on the idiopathic pain syndromes, such as irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular disorders, fibromyalgia, and tension type headache. The pattern of reduced CPM efficiency seems common to these syndromes and an assertion is made that low CPM efficiency, reflecting low pain inhibitory capacity, is a pathogenetic factor in the development of the idiopathic pain syndromes. Low CPM efficiency was shown to be predictive of acute and chronic postoperative pain, and, in some reports, to be associated with neuropathic pain levels. Low CPM efficiency is associated with higher pain morbidity and vice versa. Further work is awaited on clarifying plasticity of CPM and its relevance to selection and efficacy of pain therapy. DNIC describes inhibition of activity in convergent or wide dynamic range (WDR)-type nociceptive spinal neurons that is triggered by a second, spatially remote, noxious stimulus. This phenomenon is thought to underlie the principal of counterirritation to reduce pain, whereby “one pain masks another”. In humans, remote noxious stimuli can inhibit both the perceived intensity of pain and the magnitude of a concomitant RIII reflex, a nociceptive motor reflex elicited by graded noxious electrical stimulation. Some neurones in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord are strongly inhibited when a nociceptive stimulus is applied to any part of the body, distinct from their excitatory receptive fields. This phenomenon was termed "Diffuse Noxious Inhibitory Controls" (DNIC). DNIC influence only convergent neurones: the other cell types which are found in the dorsal horn, including specific nociceptive neurones, are not affected by this type of control. In normal conditions, these inhibitions can be triggered only by conditioning stimuli which are nociceptive. The inhibitions are then extremely potent, affect all the activities of the convergent neurones and persist, sometimes for several minutes, after the removal of the conditioning stimulus. In fact, only activity of A delta- or A delta- and C-peripheral fibres can trigger DNIC. DNIC are sustained by a complex loop which involves supraspinal structures since, unlike segmental inhibitions, they can not be observed in animals in which the cord has previously been transsected at the cervical level. The ascending and descending limbs of this loop travel respectively through the ventro-lateral and dorso-lateral funiculi respectively. Lesions of the following structures did not modify DNIC: Periaqueductal grey (PAG), Cuneiform nucleus, Parabrachial area, locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus, rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) including Raphe Magnus, Gigantocellularis and Paragigantocellularis nuclei. By contrast, lesions of Subnucleus Reticularis Dorsalis (SPD) in the caudal medulla strongly reduced DNIC. Both electrophysiological and anatomical data support the involvement of SRD neurones in spin-bulbo-spinal loop(s). Indeed, they are unresponsive to visual, auditory or proprioceptive stimulation but are preferentially or exclusively activated by nociceptive stimuli with a "whole-body receptive field"; they encode precisely the intensity of cutaneous and visceral stimulation within the noxious range and are exclusively activated by cutaneous A delta- or A delta- and C-fibre peripheral volleys; they send descending projections through the dorsolateral funiculus that terminate in the dorsal horn at all levels of the spinal cord. In man, exactly analogous results have been obtained by means of combined psychophysical measurements and recordings of nociceptive reflexes. Electrical stimulation of the sural nerve at the ankle simultaneously induces a nociceptive reflex in a flexor muscle of the knee (the RIII reflex) and a painful sensation from the territory of the nerve. Painful heterotopic conditioning stimuli, no matter whether thermal, mechanical or chemical in nature, depress both the reflex and the associated painful sensation, with stronger effects being observed with more intense conditioning stimuli. In anesthetized rats, remote noxious stimuli also depress certain nociceptive withdrawal reflexes (6), although other nociceptive reflexes can be facilitated, possibly to promote escape from the offending stimulus, suggesting that DNIC-induced depression of dorsal horn nociceptive processing is not always strictly related to motor reflex responses. However, anesthetic requirements, as measured by the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) necessary to produce immobility to a noxious stimulus, are apparently not altered by noxious counterstimulation. That is, once a supramaximal stimulus is applied, a second noxious stimulus does not alter anesthetic requirements to prevent movement. Such an apparent lack of counterstimulus effect might be due to anesthetic depression of DNIC in the peri-MAC range. We hypothesized that DNIC observed in rats anesthetized at a sub-MAC concentration of isoflurane would be depressed at concentrations more than 1 MAC. (Return to List)

Nociceptors, discovered in 1906, are specific sensory neurons (receptors) that react to stimuli by sending nerve signals to the spinal cord and brain, resulting in reflex (such as withdrawal or horripilation), autonomic responses and pain, sensed either externally or internally. Their function is heavily dependent on training, age and nervous state. The state can be affected by massage. External examples are in tissues such as skin (cutaneous nociceptors), cornea and mucosa. Internal nociceptors are in a variety of organs, such as the muscle, joint, bladder, gut and continuing along the digestive tract. The cell bodies of these neurons are located in either the dorsal root ganglia or the trigeminal ganglia.[67] The trigeminal ganglia are specialized nerves for the face, whereas the dorsal root ganglia associate with the rest of the body. The axons extend into the peripheral nervous system and terminate in branches to form receptive fields. (Read more.)
Temporal filtering of afferent information is an intrinsic component of the processing of numerous types of sensory information. To date, no temporal filtering mechanism has been identified for nociceptive information. The phenomenon of offset analgesia, the disproportionately large decrease in perceived pain following slight decreases in noxious thermal intensity, however, suggests the existence of such a mechanism. To test the hypothesis that a temporal filtering mechanism is engaged during noxious stimulus offset, subjects rated heat pain intensity while stimulus fall rates were varied from -0.5 to -5.0 degrees C/s. In the absence of a temporal filtering mechanism, pain intensity would be expected to decrease in direct proportion to the stimulus fall rate. However, psychophysical fall rates were considerably faster than stimulus fall rates, such that subjects reported no pain while stimulus temperatures were clearly within the noxious range (47.2 degrees C). In addition, paired noxious stimuli were presented simultaneously to determine if offset analgesia evoked by one stimulus could inhibit pain arising from a separate population of primary afferent neurons. Pain ratings were significantly lower than those reported from two constant 49 degrees C stimuli when offset analgesia was induced proximal to, but not distal to, a second noxious stimulus. These asymmetric spatial interactions are not readily explained by peripheral mechanisms. Taken together, these findings indicate that offset analgesia is mediated in part by central mechanisms and reflect a temporal filtering of the sensory information that enhances the contrast of dynamic decreases in noxious stimulus intensity. (Return to List)

Trigger Points are associated with many headaches, including tension headaches and migraines.
Those pain pills you think help your migraines? Take too many and you could make them worse. Overusing painkillers can spin migraine patients into a rut, spurring more headaches that in turn require more pain medication. A very unlucky fraction even get what's called chronic migraine, where they're in pain more days than not, and new research suggests certain prescription painkillers, including narcotics, increase that risk.[81] Migraine sufferers often describe "seeing" showers of shooting stars, zigzagging lines and flashing lights, and experiencing loss of vision, weakness, tingling or confusion, followed by intense throbbing head pain, nausea and vomiting. With one in eight Americans suffering from chronic migraines, and only 50 to 60 percent of migraine patients respond to traditional migraine drug treatments, Dr. Yousef Mohammad, a neurologist and principal investigator of the study at Ohio State's Medical Center, says that the noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulator (TMS) device interrupts the aura phase of the migraine, often described as electrical storms in the brain, before they lead to headaches. The TMS device sends a strong electric current through a metal coil, which creates an intense magnetic field for about one millisecond. Of the 164 patients involved in the multi-center, randomized clinical trial receiving TMS treatment, 39 percent were pain free at the two-hour post-treatment point, compared to 22 percent in the group receiving "sham" pulses.[82] (Return to List)

Muscle Physiology
Relating to the motor innervation of intrafusal muscle fibers by efferent neurons of the gray matter of the spinal cord, the gamma efferents are of two functionally distinct kinds with different effects on the afferent fibres, especially on the primary ending. One type, the dynamic fusimotor axon, increases the normal sensitivity of the primary ending to movement; the other type, the static fusimotor axon, decreases its sensitivity, causing it to behave much more like a... In addition to receiving specialized fusimotor fibres, the muscle spindle may also receive, though on a less-regular basis, branches of ordinary extrafusal motor axons. Called alpha efferents, these fibres have either a static or a dynamic effect. The physiologically important point is that most of the motor supply to the muscle spindles is largely independent of that of the ordinary muscle fibres, and only a small part is obligatorily coupled with them. The specific mechanisms by which the sensitivity of the spindle is regulated remain obscure; they may differ from muscle to muscle and for movements of different kinds.[66]. Muscle strains should be treated frequently during the first 48 hours. (Return to List)

Muscle Dysfunction, Diseases, Conditions and Treatments
In 2003, musculoskeletal symptoms (including pain, ache, soreness, discomfort, cramps, contractures, spasms, limitation of movement, stiffness, weakness, swelling, lump, mass and tumors) were the number 2 reason for physician visits - almost 56 million physician visits for musculoskeletal injuries in 2003 - accounting for 56 percent of all visits for injury[44]. One in seven Americans has a musculoskeletal impairment, costing the United States $215 billion yearly[45]. (Return to List)

Fascia and Myofascial Release
The First International Fascia Research Congress, was held in 2007 at The Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. It was the brainchild of Thomas Findley, an M.D.-Ph.D. co-director of research at the VA Medical Center in East Orange, New Jersey. For 30 years, Findley has been studying the science behind rehabilitation medicine; he is also director of research at the Rolf Institute of Structural Integration in Boulder, Colorado, which trains and certifies Rolfers. He became convinced early on that fascia--which weaves its way through the body like a gossamer blanket, cradling organs, ensheathing bones, and providing structural support--plays a key role in how patients respond to treatment. He wanted to learn more, but there were no identifiable fascia researchers.
Findley also wanted to bring in clinicians, but he knew that M.D.s wouldn't cut it. Some researchers have speculated that fascial anomalies may be responsible for black box disorders like fibromyalgia and lower back pain, yet doctors have traditionally ignored the tissue. Medical books barely mention fascia, and anatomical displays remove it. "It's just not sexy," says Elizabeth Montgomery, a pathologist who specializes in soft tissue at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.
It was 9:00 in the morning on the first day of the conference, and Paul Standley, a vascular physiologist at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Phoenix, was describing his work on fibroblasts, the chief type of cell found in fascia. When Standley's team placed the cells on flexible collagen and stretched the collagen in ways that replicated repetitive motion strains on the body, many cells died. But when the team followed the strains by stretching the collagen in ways that approximate techniques like Rolfing, more cells survived. The audience erupted.
"It's rare to see such enthusiasm at a conference," says Grinnell, a cell biologist at the University of Texas (UT) Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas. "I was really struck by it." Cell biologists spoke about how fascial cells alter gene expression in response to force, while biomechanics researchers detailed how interactions between fascial cells and the extracellular matrix contribute to whole body mobility.
For their part, the scientists had some problems connecting with the clinicians. Huijing's fears of stigma seemed to be borne out when he interacted with one group of attendees. "They started talking about aura," he says. "I don't want my name associated with that." And Giulio Gabbiani, a cell biologist at the University of Geneva in Switzerland who studies connective tissue and wound healing, acknowledged difficulty discussing some concepts with the practitioners. "It's like we were talking two different languages," he says.
"You need people who can do good basic science and clinicians who can inform them about their experiences," says the program officer with the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), "It's the only way to advance the field."
"I heard clinicians talking about how manipulating fascial stiffness was key to their interventions," says UT Southwestern's Grinnell. Now he plans to study the cell biological basis of stiffness and how it might contribute to wound repair and scarring. Huijing says he also learned new things from the alternative therapists--and he found that he had something to teach them as well. Establishing fascia research as a legitimate field, he says, will guarantee that these interactions continue.[83]
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Fat and Adipose Tissue
Scientists have known for years that "brown fat" helps small mammals, human babies and small children generate body heat by burning calories. Doctors are finally admitting that this "brown adipose tissue" could be a new way to attack the obesity epidemic. Some people have always just assumed that the amount of this fat dwindles to nothing by the time people reach adulthood. But three studies published in the New England Journal of Medicine indicate that most adults could have enough brown fat to help lose weight.
Brown-adipose-tissue activity was observed in 23 of the 24 subjects (96%) during cold exposure but not under thermoneutral conditions. The activity was significantly lower in the overweight or obese subjects than in the lean subjects. The study concluded that the percentage of young men with brown adipose tissue is high, but its activity is reduced in men who are overweight or obese, and that brown adipose tissue may be metabolically important in men[73].
Defined regions of functionally active brown adipose tissue are present in adult humans, and the amount of brown adipose tissue is inversely correlated with body-mass index, especially in older people, suggesting a potential role of brown adipose tissue in adult human metabolism[74].
"Using positron-emission tomography (PET), we found that cold-induced glucose uptake was increased by a factor of 15 in paracervical and supraclavicular adipose tissue in five healthy subjects. We obtained biopsy specimens of this tissue from the first three consecutive subjects and documented messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of the brown-adipocyte marker, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Together with morphologic assessment, which showed numerous multilocular, intracellular lipid droplets, and with the results of biochemical analysis, these findings document the presence of substantial amounts of metabolically active brown adipose tissue in healthy adult humans"[75]. This means that people with brown fat were able to metabolize glucose at a rate 15 times higher than normal when exposed to cold. This means that brown fat consumed energy rather than stored it- this is a fat that helps you lose weight and stay warm. Dr. Aaron Cypress of the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston, who led one of the studies and reviewed PET-CT scans of nearly 2,000 patients, said, "Fifty grams of maximally activated brown fat accounts for 20 percent of your resting energy expenditure. If you add that up, that's 400 or 500 calories per day. The people who had brown fat tended to be leaner and younger. The old and obese (and, interestingly, those taking prescription beta blocker heart drugs) weren't as likely to have brown fat. Trisoma believes- "use it or lose it!" and "use it to lose it." Not putting on a jacket whenever the temperature dips below 70 degrees, may train your brown fat and may help you keep warm and burn calories.
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Trigger Points
In January 2008, Dr. David G. Simons documented several researchers who have succeeded in “Identification and quantification of myofascial taut bands with magnetic resonance elastography” and identifying “Biochemicals associated with pain and inflammation are elevated in sites near to and remote from active myofascial trigger points”[5]. Janet Travell and David Simons hypothesized that local ischemia limits oxygen replacement and consumes more adenosine triphosphate (ATP), leaving insufficient ATP for adequate return of calcium from the contractile elements to the sarcoplasmic reticulum by the calcium pump, causing the point to release. Stretching the muscle reduces the overlap between actin and myosin, thereby reducing energy demand and breaking the cycle, and "resetting" the muscle strand. [76] Another theory, promoted by David R. Hubbard, MD. in San Diego, is that trigger points are muscle spindle cells or intrafusal muscle fibers, encapsulated structures about 1 cm in length, that are made over-active by adrenalin stimulation via the sympathetic nervous system, which also controls heart rate, blood pressure and other internal regulatory functions. Dr, Thomas in New Zealand writes that the trigger point is not an inflamed area of muscle; however, severe damage at the sub-cellular and molecular levels has been noted:
  Mechanical stress to the sarcoplasmic reticulum
  Depletion of Cellular energy and build up of Lactic Acid
  Poor membrane integrity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum due to "toxic" fats (hydrogenated and heavily oxidised polyunsaturate fats): Leads to a poorly functional and easily damaged Calcium switch
  Statins: Disrupt the production of Co-enzyme Q-10, and also the normal and natural membrane component "Cholesterol" resulting in a Calcium Switch that fails to turn off[77]. Without ascribing it to a single cause, Paul Svacina believes that theories support the idea that increase of psychological stress, repetitive tasks and decrease of moderate physical activity in modern lives has increased the occurence of myofascial pain and trigger points. (Return to List)

Trigger Point History
In the 1930's, Dr. Travell noticed that most patients at her hospital had life-threatening pulmonary disease, but some of them complained more about devastating pain in their shoulders and arms than about their major illness. "When I examined them by systematic palpation of the scapula and chest muscles, I easily uncovered the presence of trigger areas.”[47a]. It was during this time that Janet read that these tender spots that had been so unresponsive to treatment could be eliminated by procaine injection if the clinician hit precisely the right spot, in an article by J.H. Kellgren in the British Medical Journal titled, “A Preliminary Account of Referred Pains Arising from Muscle,”[48] which strongly influenced her thinking. Unknown to Janet Travell, two other clinicians, Michael Gutstein[49] in Germany, and Michael Kelly[50] in Australia, independently published a series of papers about myofascial pain. They all emphasized “four cardinal features [of the condition]: a palpable nodular or band-like hardness in the muscle, a highly localized spot of extreme tenderness in the band, reproduction of the patient's distant pain complaint by digital pressure on that spot [referred pain], and relief of the pain by massage or injection of the tender spot."[47b]
All three had identified myofascial TrPs [trigger points], however, each had used different diagnostic terms and was apparently unaware of the others' work. In 1940, she had the opportunity to do a study of this phenomenon and its treatment by injecting the MTrPs with 1% procaine, and in 1942, Janet Travell, Seymour H. Rinzler, and Myron Herman published “Pain and Disability of the Shoulder and Arm."[51], which was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 1942, and described complete relief in 62% of 58 (13 cardiac and 45 noncardiac) patients and moderate-to-considerable improvement in 37%, following procaine injection. This approach of procaine injection of MTrPs in patients suffering from the pain of myocardial infarction convinced her and her colleagues that the treatment could stop both noncardiac pain of muscle origin and true cardiac pain of coronary insufficiency[52]. These findings were first reported in preliminary form in “Relief of Cardiac Pain by Local Block of Somatic Trigger Areas”[53], and then definitively in 1948 as “Therapy Directed at the Somatic Component of Cardiac Pain”[54].
Half a century later, clinical recognition of this common source of cardiac-type pain had largely disappeared, and is only now, being again researched. Continuing research with cardiac pain, where Ethyl chloride spray was applied to the region that was rendered painful by ergonovine induced angina, stopped the pain in that area almost at once— faster than nitroglycerin did. Monitoring the effect with electrocardiography (ECG), they established that some of the pain that they were relieving with ethyl chloride did originate in the heart. Spraying the pain reference zones before the use of ergonovine prevented the pain from appearing or delayed its onset for several minutes, but did not affect the ECG changes of cardiac ischemia. They published these results in 1954, “Blocking Effect of Ethyl Chloride Spray on Cardiac Pain Induced by Ergonovine.”[55] However the pharmacologic effect of ergonovine on coronary arteries was thought to be constriction, and the indirect experimental evidence indicated that it caused coronary artery dilation, not constriction, so it occurred to Drs. Travell and Rinzler that possibly ergonovine increased circulation only in normal hearts and decreased it in atherosclerotic hearts. This was a heretical concept because all drug testing of this type had been done on normal animals. After much effort, using rabbits that had become atherosclerotic for another study, Janet and her colleagues confirmed the suspected difference in responses[56] and left no doubt that the spray could relieve pain of cardiac origin, as well as of MTrP origin, and also saw evidence that the spray could suppress cardiac arrhythmias.
Janet Travell continued to relieve pain for patients, including John F. Kennedy, who later became president and surprisingly made her his physician. After retiring from the Johnson administration, she continued to lecture and teach at universities and hospitals, and one of her lines was, “the magic never fails.”
In the mid-1990s, others built on the foundation laid by Janet. Exploring the mechanism by which pain is referred from an MTrP to the reference zone, a study in the Heidelberg research laboratory of the neurophysiologist, Siegfried Mense, demonstrated 1 such referral mechanism[57]. The awakening of sleeping dorsal horn nociceptive connections by pain from the same muscle or another muscle activates new receptive fields for pain. This observation fits the now-extensive literature on the reconfiguration of spinal cord activity in response to sustained pain input and is described in a book that summarizes these mechanisms and their clinical application to muscle[58]. In addressing ourselves to the key issue of causation, my colleague (John Hong, MD), my physical therapist wife (Lois), and I conducted electrodiagnostic studies on both rabbits[59] and patients[60]. These showed that electromyographic endplate noise is significantly related to MTrPs. Others reached this same conclusion[61]. The evidence that any endplate noise corresponds to greatly increased numbers of miniature endplate potentials[62] indicates that a core feature of MTrPs appears to be the release of greatly increased numbers of acetylcholine vesicles of the motor nerve terminal. A detailed description of the current understanding of MTrP etiology can be found in either of 2 recent books.[47c],[58].
To identify and treat the MTrPs of pectoral muscles that so commonly contribute to, or cause, pain that is assumed erroneously to be of cardiac origin, or pain that becomes enigmatic when all cardiac tests are normal, one must learn how to find which muscle or muscles need to be palpated, learn what to palpate for, and either develop the skill to treat the pain or find a therapist with that skill. Any muscle with a painfully restricted range of motion and a tender spot that reproduces the patient's pain when compressed likely has a myofascial trigger point[52]. When it is imagined that this phenomenon may hold true for other organ syndromes, the limits of Trigger Point Therapy may be far reaching.
In 1963 David G. Simons, MD, a staff flight surgeon at the United States Air Force's School of Aerospace Medicine, attended a 2-day lecture demonstration on myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) by Janet G. Travell. He knew that years earlier his chief at the Space Medicine Laboratory in Alamogordo, New Mexico, had identified a trigger point as the cause of an enigmatic shoulder pain in a staff member of the laboratory. Janet's lectures were a revelation to Dr. Simons and he stated, "So this was the cause of most of my muscular aches and pains and those of my friends, family, and colleagues!" The cause of this myogenic pain was clearly overlooked in medical training and practice, but diagnosable and treatable by an expert. On later occasions, Dr. Simons saw the conversion of atrial fibrillation to normal rhythm when vapocoolant spray was applied over the arrhythmia MTrP on the lower-right anterior chest wall; the same effect could be achieved by trigger point pressure release applied to that MTrP, as described in The Trigger Point Manual,[47d] and it appeared likely that many such unexpected influences, to and from MTrPs, depend on modulation of the autonomic nervous system, in addition to modulation of the sensory nervous system (referred pain). The Trigger Point Manual,[47d] describes how the pain patterns of the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles mimic the pain referral patterns of cardiac ischemia. The early studies by Dr. Travell and colleagues provided convincing experimental evidence that the referred pain of cardiac ischemia and the referred pain of active myofascial MTrPs can be eliminated, or decreased remarkably, by application of vapocoolant spray to the skin over the painful area.
Clinical studies showed that doctors easily mistook the 2 sources of pain (referred pain of cardiac ischemia and active myofascial trigger points) for one another and that persistence of pain for some time after the ischemia of a myocardial infarction should have resolved is likely to be caused by MTrPs. Symptoms of angina in the absence of demonstrable cardiac disease should be considered as likely due to MTrPs. In the light of recent research, the effectiveness of the application of vapocoolant spray to the skin in the referred pain zone indicates that the spray's afferent input to the dorsal horn blocks transmission of nociceptive stimuli or inhibits awakened dorsal horn nociceptor pathways responsible for the referred pain.
Janet's discussions and mentoring inspired Dr. Simons to try to understand what causes trigger points and to become certified as a physiatrist and clinician who treats patients with myofascial trigger points. In 1970, he began examining all his patients for MTrPs as a VA-paid physician in the physical medicine and rehabilitation residency program at the University of Washington in Seattle, but realized only modest success at that time. Then in 1974 Dr. Simons was assigned a ward of the rehabilitation medical service in the VA Hospital at Long Beach, California. The hospital's education committee supported a 1-month instructional visit by Janet. She spent every Friday afternoon giving a lecture-demonstration to the hospital staff, and the rest of the week demonstrating to the diagnosis and treatment of MTrPs on his 23 rehabilitation ward patients. Then she would describe the subjects' problems, her analysis of what caused the MTrPs, how she then demonstrated what was wrong, and the results of her treatment. As soon as she returned to Washington, doctors at the VA Hospital realized that they needed written reminders of what she had taught. From this grew the 1st volume of the Trigger Point Manual[47e], which had its basis partly in Dr. Simons' weekly Friday evening telephone calls to Washington. During these calls, Janet regularly included exciting descriptions of what she had learned that week from patients. During Janet's periodic visits to the VA myofascial pain clinic in Long Beach, California, Dr. Simons tape-recorded her train of thought and continued to write Volume 1 of The Trigger Point Manual. Janet looked under every physical and medical stone imaginable until she found innovative and likely solutions that patient had failed to respond to treatment as expected. The answers ranged from relatively short upper arms or leg-length discrepancies to inadequate vitamin intake. Her writings in the Travell Collection (“Six Ways to Make Housework Lighter” is a good example) are full of advice on how not to develop MTrPs; this advice arose from her observations of what her patients had done to activate their MTrPs.
During Janet's visits to California late in the 1970s, Dr. Simons began to formulate a hypothesis on what causes formation of MTrPs, and in 1981, they published their hypothesis which explained how the taut band muscle fibers contracted in the absence of propagated electrical activity, and why stretching the muscle could produce rapid resolution of the tenderness of the nodule and the tautness of the band[63]. The hypothesis focused on excessive calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum as a cause of local muscle fiber contracture. The contracture, in turn, causes local ischemia that limits energy replacement and consumes more adenosine triphosphate (ATP), depleting the energy source. These events leave insufficient ATP for adequate return of calcium from the contractile elements to the sarcoplasmic reticulum by the calcium pump. Stretching the muscle reduces the overlap between actin and myosin, thereby reducing energy demand and breaking the cycle.
Dr. Raymond L. Nimmo, D.C. (1904-86), who was the definitive chiropractic pioneer of soft tissue and trigger point therapy, coined the "noxious generative point" in the late 1940's and evolved neurophysiological explanations in the 1950's for the trigger point phenomenon, formulations that are still regarded as highly sophisticated half a century later[64]. Nimmo developed his Receptor-Tonus Method after he found that malposition of bones which sends a barrage of noxious impulses into an area producing vasoconstriction, ischemia, and trigger points in muscles. Since tonus is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system, and is not under conscious control, we can not correct our own distortions. Nimmo discovered that pressure applied in proper degree, at proper intervals, will release both trigger points and hypermyotonia. In Nimmo's view, the initiating insult to a muscle - such as overuse or frank injury, a cold draft, or even emotional problems - causes an abnormal increase in afferent input to the spinal cord. In turn, this may cause an abnormal stream of efferent impulses back to the muscle, resulting in hypermyotonia (hypertonus), a vicious cycle sometimes called the pain-spasm-pain cycle. These abnormal reflex arcs have tremendous staying power, and often require external intervention to break the loop. In addition to the reflex hypertonus of the muscle related to the trigger points, there may be production of satellite or secondary trigger points, and visceral dysfunction in the organs innervated by the internuncial neuronal pool stimulated by the trigger point[64]. (Return to List)

Most of the histologic findings in tendinopathy represent chronic degeneration, regeneration, and microtears of the tendinous tissue. The prevailing opinion is that no histological evidence of acute inflammation has been documented, but some studies using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry indicate that the initiators of the tendinopathic pathway include many proinflammatory agents (e.g. cytokines, prostaglandins, different growth factors, and neuropetides). Traditional theories state that pain arises through inflammation or due to separation of collagen fibers in more severe forms of tendinopathy. Other theories include biochemical stimulation of the nociceptors due to extravasation of glucosaminoglycans, especially chondroitin sulfates (Benazzo et al., 1996; Khan et al., 1996; Jo` zsa & Kannus, 1997) and other biochemical irritants. In biopsies from athletes with patellar tendinopathy, Danielson et al. (2006b) recently found that tenocytes produce acetylcholine and that nerve fibers showing immunoreactions for the acetylcholine-receptor M2 were observed in association with the small blood vessels in tendinopathy. Prostaglandins, prostacyclins, and thromboxanes (prostanoids) contribute to the development of pain by acting both peripherally and centrally. Peripherally, they play a major role in generating peripheral sensitization by increasing the sensitivity of the peripheral terminals of high-threshold pain fibers (nociceptors). They increase excitability, reduce the pain threshold, and potentiate the action of painproducing stimuli, such as heat or irritant molecules like bradykinin (Khasar et al., 1998; Gold, 1999).
Currently, investigations are increasingly focused on the nerve supply to the tendons. Neuropeptide containing nerve fibers have both afferent and efferent roles with respect to bone cell regulation, and they may be involved in the healing of tendons and fractures. The nerve fibers are mainly located in the periosteum, synovium, the fat pad (Witonski & Wagrowska-Danielewicz, 1997), and the loose peritendinous connective tissue. However, nerve ingrowth is known to occur as a response to tendon injury (Ackermann et al., 2002), and a number of studies have demonstrated new nerve ingrowth in the tendon proper in tendinopathy (Schubert et al., 2005; Lian et al., 2006). In tendinopathy, nerve fibers accompany the blood vessels into the tendon (Danielson et al., 2006a). It has been suggested that these nerves are a potential origin of the pain in tendinopathy (Alfredson et al., 2003b).
In tendons without a synovial sheath, the epitenon is tightly bound to the tendon. Generally, "tendinitis" (or "tendonitis") is primarily used as a histopathologic term describing a condition in which the primary site of involvement is the tendon and with an inflammatory response being seen within the tendon (Järvinen et al., 1997; Sharma & Maffulli, 2006). The condition is often associated with reactive "paratenonitis" or "peritendinitis," which is an inflammation of the paratenon (Järvinen et al., 1997). "Tendinosis" is not correlated with clinical symptoms (Peers & Lysens, 2005), but it has been widely used for patients with chronic tendon pain, and with biopsy, radiographic, ultrasonographic, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showing tendon abnormalities (Khan et al., 1999; Alfredson, 2003). Today, "tendinosis" is primarily used to describe a histopathologic finding with intratendinous degeneration and no sign of inflammation (Järvinen et al., 1997; Sharma & Maffulli, 2006). "Tendinopathy" is used to signify the combination of tendon pain and impaired performance often associated with swelling of the tendon and intratendinous changes (Alfredson, 2003, 2005) evaluated by US or MRI. The diagnosis of tendinopathy can, in contrast to tendinitis and tendinosis, be made clinically without histopathologic examination.
No specific time criteria are used to classify tendinopathy as acute or chronic. It has been suggested that tendon symptoms present for <2 weeks be described as "acute," for 2–6 weeks as "subacute," and for more than 6 weeks as "chronic" (el Hawary et al., 1997). These somewhat arbitrary distinctions are not based on histopathologic or clinical criteria.
It is recommended that the term tendinopathy be used as a clinical diagnosis for patients with pain in the tendons. Tendinosis and tendinitis require a biopsy showing degeneration or inflammation. If symptoms are present for more than 3 months, the tendinopathy is categorized as "chronic," for symptoms present between 6 and 12 weeks as "subacute," and for symptoms present between 0 and 6 weeks as "acute."
[46]. Trisoma believes that strain in the engineering sense plays a major role in tendinopathies, due to modern sedentary activities causing prolonged periods of light isometric forces in muscles with inadequate rest. (Return to List)

Stress, Eustress, Destress
Stress is difficult for scientists to define because it is a subjective sensation associated with varied symptoms that differ for each person. Increased stress increases productivity – up to a point, after which things rapidly deteriorate, and that level also differs for each of us. Much like the tension on a violin string, not enough produces a dull, raspy sound, and too much an irritating screech or snaps the string – but just the correct degree of stress creates a beautiful tone. Similarly, we all have to find the right amount of stress that permits us to make pleasant music in our daily lives[39]. These days, stressors have become intangible, mental irritants that can't be cleansed by a sudden rush of kinetic energy. Up to 90% of all visits to primary care physicians are for stress-related complaints, and stress accounts for $26 billion in medical and disability payments and $95 billion in lost productivity per year, and over 50% of lost work days are stress related which keeps about 1 million people per day from attending work[30]. Health care expenditures are nearly 50% greater for workers who report high levels of stress[32] and 40% of job turnover is due to stress[33]. Medical school research indicated that a 15-minute chair massage results in decreased job stress, increased alertness and increased speed & accuracy on math computations, and that office workers massaged regularly were more alert, performed better and were less stressed than those who weren't massaged[31]. The effects of stress may alter the immune response and increase susceptibility to disease[34,35]. Stress can also play a role in the onset and course of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis[34,36]. In addition, stress may prompt changes in health behavior, such as taking up smoking or increased smoking, eating, alcohol consumption, and unhealthy weight gain are potential responses[35,37]. Job stress is estimated to cost American Industry $300 billion a year, more than the net profits of all the Fortune 500 companies combined and ten times the costs for all strikes; 40% of job turnover is due to job stress; 60% to 80% of on-the-job accidents are stress-related; 75% to 90% of all visits to primary care physicians are for stress-related complaints or conditions; Health care expenditures are nearly 50% greater for workers who report high stress levels[40]. According to Statistics Canada, from 1992 to 1998, the proportion of "severe stress" reported by Canadians climbed 25% for men and 23% for women; and stress as a reason for work absence has increased 316 percent since 1995. Data from the National Population Health Survey (NPHS of Canada) show that feeling personal stress in 1994/95 was predictive of developing chronic conditions over the next four years, even when age, socio-economic status and several health-related behaviours (smoking, drinking, body mass index, leisure-time physical activity) were taken into account. Men who had experienced high personal stress in 1994/95 had about twice the odds of having been diagnosed with migraine, ulcers or arthritis by 1998/99, compared with those who had not reported high personal stress. For women, high personal stress in 1994/95 was associated with significantly high odds of a new diagnosis of chronic bronchitis/ emphysema, ulcers, asthma, back problems, or arthritis by 1998/99. More generally, men and women who experienced high personal stress had significantly low odds of having "continuing good health"[38]. It is becoming increasingly clear that psychosocial stress can manifest as system-wide perturbations of cellular processes, generally increasing oxidative stress and promoting a pro-inflammatory milieu[11][12][13]. Stress associated changes in peripheral blood leukocyte expression of single genes have been identified[14][15][16]. More recently, chronic psychosocial stress has been associated with accelerated aging at the cellular level. Specifically, shortened telomeres, low telomerase activity, decreased anti-oxidant capacity and increased oxidative stress are correlated with increased psychosocial stress[17] and with increased vulnerability to a variety of disease states[18]. Stress-related changes in GEP have been demonstrated by microarray analysis in healthy subjects, including up-regulation of several cytokines/chemokines and their receptors[19], and in individuals suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder, including inflammation, apoptosis and stress response[20] as well as metabolism and RNA processing pathways[21]. The pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-kappa B (NF-?B) which is activated by psychosocial stress has been identified as a potential link between stress and oxidative cellular activation[22]. The RR is clinically effective for ameliorating symptoms in a variety of stress-related disorders including cardiovascular, autoimmune and other inflammatory conditions and pain[23]. (Return to List)

Emerging medical research shows that the relaxation response (RR) by various forms of meditation, repetitive prayer, yoga, tai chi, breathing exercises, progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback, guided imagery and Qi Gong for only 8 weeks actually changes genetic expression for the better, because unbalanced stress shortens the tip of telomeres, accelerating the death of the cells. This new research shows that relaxation techniques such as meditation, actually "turn off" the disease-promoting process that stress causes[1]. Over the years, there have been hundreds, if not thousands of research studies revealing many adjuvant health and healing benefits of regular relaxation techniques such as meditation, prayer, visualization, and so on, including the picture of a much younger brain. Regions involved in memory and attention were thicker in people who meditated regularly. While these areas tend to shrink with age, older meditators were able to ward off some of this shrinkage[2,3]. In many research studies over three decades, meditation has been shown to help your heart, reduce anxiety, soften chronic pain, and increase longevity[2]. Other consistent physiologic changes observed in long-term practitioners of RR techniques include decreased carbon dioxide elimination, reduced blood pressure, decreased oxygen consumption[8,9,10], heart and respiration rate[24][6][7], prominent low frequency heart rate oscillations[8] and alterations in cortical and subcortical brain regions[9][10]. (Return to List)

Breathing less puts you into a true anti-aging zone, because, when you use less oxygen, you create fewer free radicals, which are a hallmark of the aging process[4]. Although Buteyko and other eucapnic breathing therapies have been successful in removing asthma symptoms, doctors in the USA still have little knowledge of this.
Joe Zasadzinski, UCSB Professor of Chemical Engineering studying lung effects of smoking, stated that, "every 24 hours or so the lining of your lungs is basically replaced" with about a teaspoon of epithelial surfactant, "but if you don't have it, you're dead." [85].
For more info on breathing, click here.
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Mayo Clinic oncologist Edward T. Creagan, M.D. reminds us to not overlook sleep as a stress buster. Dr. Creagan explains his steps for challenging times or an increase in demands and expectations, by being fanatical about "sleep hygiene."
Getting enough sleep. For me that means 7 to 8 hours.
Having a bedtime routine. This does not include watching the news or some crime show, which are not conducive to a good night's sleep for me.
Clearing my mind. Finding a way to put the worries and concerns of the day aside.
Feeling thankful. Thinking back on events of the day for which I am thankful. Regardless of our circumstances, each of us can find circumstances and especially people in our lives for whom we should be grateful.

By the time you’re 30, you’ve got about as much of the sleep hormone melatonin as a five-year-old. Once you hit 65, you’ve got less than you had when you were a newborn. According to Dr. Al Sears, the best way to get melatonin directly to the sleep system of your brain is to bypass your stomach. That means you should look for a liquid melatonin that you hold in your mouth before swallowing. The melatonin is absorbed by the blood vessels in your tongue and cheeks and won’t be destroyed by the acids in your stomach.
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Sound - Singing, Chanting, Humming, Omm-ing, Purring and Ultrasound
Much research on sound affecting physiology has recently been published. For example, the purring of cats was previously considered a sign of contentment, but actually it is therapeutic, promoting bone growth.[41,42,43] This may explain why injured cats purr.
Schizophonia is unhealthy. "Schizophonia" describes a state where what you hear and what you see are unrelated. The Canadian audiologist Murray Schafer explains: "I coined the term schizophonia intending it to be a nervous word. Related to schizophrenia, I wanted it to convey the same sense of aberration and drama." My assertion that continual schizophonia is unhealthy is a hypothesis that science could and should test, both at personal and also a social level. You have only to consider the bizarre jollity of train carriages now -- full of lively conversation but none of it with anyone else in the carriage -- to entertain the possibility that this is somehow unnatural. Old-style silence at least had the virtue of being an honest lack of connection with those around us. Now we ignore our neighbors, merrily discussing intimate details of our lives as if the people around us simply don't exist. Surely this is not a positive social phenomenon.
Compressed music makes you tired. However clever the technology and the psychoacoustic algorithms applied, there are many issues with data compression of music, as discussed in this excellent
article by Robert Harley back in 1991. My assertion that listening to highly compressed music makes people tired and irritable is based on personal and anecdotal experience - again it's one that I hope will be tested by researchers.
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Sun - Vitamin D, Sunscreens...
For decades we’ve been told to cover our skin with chemical sunscreens to block out the rays of the sun — or else we might face skin cancer and premature aging. Many sunscreens contain minute particles of the same chemicals found in diesel fuel. Researchers know that when these chemicals are inhaled by test animals, they penetrate every part of the brain and there is no way to remove them. Scientists now believe there is a link between sunscreen chemicals and brain diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. The worry is that the same chemicals in sunscreen can be absorbed by the skin and also end up permanently in the brain. European researchers are about to begin a 3-year study to explore the links between sunscreen and brain diseases. Jon Herring and Dr. Al Sears, authors of a groundbreaking book on the positive health benefits of sun exposure, advise to forego sunscreen, if at all possible. They say to get out of the sun if you are burning, or use shade, clothing or an umbrella to limit your exposure; and if you must use sunscreen, choose a physical sun block, like zinc oxide.
Dr. Herbert M. Shelton writes that many things told about the "dangers of the sun" are lies, and thousands of peer-reviewed medical studies show proof. Vitamin D Is FREE from the Sun, and Jon Herring and Al Sears, M.D., state that studies conclude that it protects humans from depression, diabetes, osteoporosis and bone loss, heart disease, breast cancer, autoimmune illness, athletic performance, brain function, neonatal health and more. They point out data that people whose occupation keeps them outside have LOWER rates of the deadly skin cancer, melanoma; that kids that grow up in sunny climates have fewer cavities, that vitamin D supplements given to babies in Finland reduced their risk of Type 1 diabetes by 85 percent; that even your risk of the deadly skin cancer melanoma could go up if you avoid spending time in the sun. According to several experts, virtually 100 percent of the US population is deficient in this substance at least part of the year.
Years ago, did you hear anyone worrying about melanoma? It's because fewer people had it. Then, starting in 1973, melanoma cases began climbing -- right around the time we stopped going outside, living in fluorescent lighting and using sunscreen chemicals. One study in Australia -- one of the sunniest places on earth -- found that office workers were more likely to get melanoma than lifeguards. Another found that melanoma is more common in Ohio than sun-soaked Florida. Another study, published in Nature Genetics, found that the number of moles you have (another genetic condition) is one of the strongest risk factors for melanoma. Not the sun. Most so-called professionals still refuse to make the connection -- probably because so many of them profit off our bizarre and unnecessary fear of bright afternoons. Some studies show that this gunk can actually increase your risk of skin cancer. Then, be sure to spend a little more time in the sun. Get back inside before you burn, but not because you fear cancer -- but because sunburn hurts. (From William Campbell Douglass II, M.D. on 30 Oct. 09)
In November 2009 it was confirmed that human sperm has a vitamin D receptor, and analysis also indicated that vitamin D is produced locally in the sperm. Dr. Anne Clark, a fertility specialist:, wrote that "Vitamin D and folate deficiency are known to be associated with infertility in women, but the outcomes of the screening among men in our study group came as a complete surprise. Men in the study group who agreed to make lifestyle changes and take dietary supplements had surprisingly good fertility outcomes."
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Hyponatremia- In 2002 Cynthia Lucero died after running 19 miles in the 2002 Boston Marathon when she was just 28. Her heart was fine, but too much fluid intake diluted her sodium levels, causing her brain to swell as it tried to balance cellular and blood sodium levels. Runners also reportedly died in the Marine Corps Marathon and the 2007 London Marathon. Most runners know to stay hydrated during a race. Not many know that too much water can dilute their sodium to dangerous levels.

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Diet and Nutrition
Trisoma does not have licensed dietiticians, but here are some selected sources.
Diabetes. Type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome can be reversed solely through lifestyle changes,” according to lead researcher Christian Roberts of University of California, Los Angeles.
Chlorine gas is used to bleach wheat flour to make it white. But in the process, a by-product called alloxan is created that actually destroys beta cells in the pancreas responsible for making insulin! Scientists regularly use alloxan to induce diabetes in lab animals because it destroys the insulin-producing function of the pancreas, allowing glucose levels to shoot sky-high. Consuming white flour products has the same effect on your blood sugar as eating table sugar! And it also damages your pancreas. Can you fix the past harm done? You bet! states Dr. Stefan Ripich of
"Smart Choices" is a new food industry-funded program, where Froot Loops cereal and Fudgesicle ice pops are considered "Smart Choices." Foods that are approved for "Smart Choices" get a shiny new label with a great big checkmark, but the real check here is the one the manufacturer has to write for the privilege of using this deceitful logo -- up to $100,000. "You're rushing around, you're trying to think about healthy eating for your kids and you have a choice between a doughnut and a cereal," Dr. Eileen Kennedy, president of the Smart Choices board, told the New York Times. "So Froot Loops is a better choice."
According to researchers at the Collaborating Center for Obesity Prevention of the World Health Organization (WHO), the climbing rate of obesity in industrialized nations is the result of - drum roll, please – overeating. The WHO study in 2005 claimed that 1.6 billion adults (nearly a third of the global population) on this earth are overweight, and about 400 million are obese.
"We desperately need safe new drugs so we can begin to have something effective against this public health epidemic," Jennifer Lovejoy, incoming president of something called the Obesity Society, whined in the Washington Post.
In 1953, physiologist Ancel Keys published an influential paper titled "Atherosclerosis, a Problem in Newer Public Health." He compared fat intake and the rate of heart disease in 6 countries: the United States, Canada, Australia, England, Italy and Japan. He found a correlation: nations with high levels of fat intake also had high levels of heart disease.
Turns out, however, that Keys pulled a fast one. First of all, he “cherry-picked” his data. Statistics about fat intake and heart disease were actually available for 22 countries. If you analyze all 22, the apparent link between fat consumption and heart disease disappeared. For example, the death rate from heart disease in Finland was 24 times that of Mexico, even though fat-consumption rates in the two nations were similar. Also, Vanderbilt University scientist George Mann, MD, found in the 1960s in Africa that Masai tribesman in Kenya and Tanzania who lived primarily on red meat and whole milk were also very lean, had extremely low cholesterol levels, and were virtually free of heart disease.
The other problem with Keys’ study is one that frequently bedevils researchers: correlation is not causation. In other words, maybe fat had little to do with the high rates of heart disease in the US, which had the highest level of fat intake of all. Maybe it was the fact that US citizens didn’t exercise very much, or smoked a lot, or ate a lot of something else that was bad for the heart.

Omegas. Americans and Europeans now get far too much of the omega-6s and not enough of the omega-3s. This dietary imbalance may explain the rise of such diseases as asthma, coronary heart disease, many forms of cancer, autoimmunity and neurodegenerative diseases, all of which are believed to stem from inflammation in the body. The imbalance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids may also contribute to obesity, depression, dyslexia, hyperactivity and even a tendency toward violence. Bringing the fats into proper proportion may actually relieve those conditions, according to Joseph Hibbeln, M.D., a psychiatrist at the National Institutes of Health, and perhaps the world's leading authority on the relationship between fat consumption and mental health.
Dr. Glen F. Aukerman, Professor at the Department of Family Medicine at the Ohio State University College of Medicine Center for Integrative Medicine, states that omega-6 is considered "bad" fat, while omega-3 is considered "good" fat. "Over the past 50-100 years there has been an enormous increase in the consumption of omega-6 fatty acids with the increased use vegetable oils from corn, sunflower seeds, safflower seeds, cottonseed, and soybeans in cooking and processing. To balance this deficit, many physicians suggest omega-3, magnesium, calcium, vitamin C, B-complex and multivitamins be added to our diets. As always, you should discuss any over-the-counter medications you are considering with your family physician to prevent any unintended side effects or interactions." (This article originally appeared in Netwell (Winter 2005), a quarterly publication by OSU Managed Health Care Systems, the OSU Faculty and Staff Wellness Program, and the OSU Office of Human Resources and was adapted for use on NetWellness with permission, 2007.)
Dr. Andrew Weil states that if you follow his anti-inflammatory diet, you should get a healthy ratio of these fatty acids. In general, however, you can cut down on omega-6 levels by reducing consumption of processed and fast foods and polyunsaturated vegetable oils (corn, sunflower, safflower, soy, and cottonseed, for example). At home, use extra virgin olive oil for cooking and in salad dressings. Eat more oily fish or take fish oil supplements, walnuts, flax seeds, and omega-3 fortified eggs. Your body and mind will thank you.
People guzzle soft drinks at an alarming rate. According to research done by Dr. Moses Elisaf of the University of Ioannina in Greece, drinking too much soda can lead to weakness, muscle paralysis, and even a drop in your levels of blood potassium. Elisaf said, "We are consuming more soft drinks than ever before and a number of health issues have already been identified, including tooth problems, bone demineralisation and the development of metabolic syndrome and diabetes." A comparison of 465 patients with newly diagnosed CKD and 467 community controls in North Carolina showed a twofold increased risk of CKD in patients who drank two or more cola drinks (16 ounces) per day. Chronic hypokalaemia causes increased renin levels, increased sympathetic tone and altered nitric oxide metabolism. Over time, these changes can lead to vasoconstriction, salt-sensitivity, polydipsia, polyuria and tubulointerstitial injury. This hypokalaemic nephropathy is reversible if promptly treated with potassium repletion, but in long-term cases, it can lead to chronic renal insufficiency and sometimes progress to end-stage renal disease. As you might expect, when the people cut back on their cola consumption, the symptoms of muscle weakness, fatigue, and even derailed potassium levels returned to normal. [84]
Meat. Red meat has been a favorite target for splashy "red meat will kill you" news headlines for years. A professor of "global nutrition", Rashmi Sinha, leader of the National Cancer Institute study, states that, "The bottom line is we found an association between red and processed meat and an increased risk of mortality." Barry Popkin, a professor of global nutrition at the University of North Carolina, went even farther, saying "It's a slam dunk to say that, 'Yes, indeed, if people want to be healthy and life longer, consume less red and processed meat.'" However we find it curious that grass-fed beef would be in the same category as processed bologna, which may be consumed with other junk foods, colas, french fries, juice drinks and candy bars? It turns out that the entire large-scale, "slam dunk study" was based on a food frequency questionnaire sent out by AARP back in 1995, where the seniors were required to remember how often they ate over 124 different foods over the course of an entire year. Maybe they were drinking fluoridated water, or dumping sugar substitutes in their coffee. It is not clear. William Campbell Douglass II, M.D. stated, "I'm sure if these "master statisticians" looked hard enough, they could statistically "prove" that people who preferred licorice jelly beans or brown M&Ms also had higher scores on their SATs. It's outlandish and so is this study. The fact that more than 3,000 news sources could print it as the gospel truth has to make you question every single "breakthrough study" or "scientific research" you hear about in the mainstream media."[many sources]
Nitrates are added to processed meats to redden the color and preserve... but are said to act like saltpeter- not preserving your love life. Also, the Mayo Clinic reported that "It's thought that sodium nitrate may damage your blood vessels, making your arteries more likely to harden and narrow, leading to heart disease. Nitrates may also affect the way your body uses sugar, making you more likely to develop diabetes."
A vegetarian diet might be masking an underlying eating disorder, new research suggests. Ramona Robinson-O'Brien, assistant professor in the Nutrition Department at the College of Saint Benedict and Saint John's University in St. Joseph, Minn., conducted a study which found that the vegetarians among the participants generally were less likely to be overweight or obese, but that twice as many teens and nearly double the number of young adults who had been vegetarians reported having used unhealthy means to control their weight, compared with those who had never been vegetarians. Those means included using diet pills, laxatives and diuretics and inducing vomiting to control weight. "However, current vegetarians may be at increased risk for binge eating, while former vegetarians may be at increased risk for extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors," she said. About 21 percent of teens who had been vegetarians said they used unhealthy weight-control behaviors, compared with 10 percent of teens who had never been vegetarians. In addition, among teenagers, binge eating and loss of control over eating habits was reported by 21 percent of current and 16 percent of former vegetarians but only 4 percent of those who'd never followed a vegetarian diet. For young adults, more vegetarians (18 percent) said they engaged in binge eating with loss of control than did former vegetarians (9 percent) and those who were never vegetarians (5 percent), the study found. Young adult vegetarians were less likely to be overweight or obese than were those who'd never been vegetarians. [68]
Organic foods are compared by the Mayo clinic as:
Conventional : Apply chemical fertilizers to promote plant growth.
Organic: Apply natural fertilizers, such as manure or compost, to feed soil and plants.
Conventional : Spray insecticides to reduce pests and disease.
Organic: Use beneficial insects and birds, mating disruption or traps to reduce pests and disease.
Conventional : Use chemical herbicides to manage weeds.
Organic: Rotate crops, till, hand weed or mulch to manage weeds.
Conventional : Give animals antibiotics, growth hormones and medications to prevent disease and spur growth.
Organic: Give animals organic feed and allow them access to the outdoors. Use preventive measures — such as rotational grazing, a balanced diet and clean housing — to help minimize disease.
Hmm. Which would you choose to put inside your body?? Curiously, the Mayo clinic call conventional farming "traditional methods", which are about as traditional as Santa Claus driving a car in the Halloween parade!
Pasteurization. The USDA has been trying to ban raw milk for decades, and has managed to outlaw raw almonds. As of 2008 the USDA requires that raw almonds be treated with propylene oxide (a toxic fumigant recognized as a carcinogen by the EPA) or steam-heated before sale to American consumers, however foreign-grown almonds are exempt and are rapidly displacing raw domestic nuts on the market. Almonds treated with propylene oxide or steam heat can still be labeled as "raw", and stores are not required to alert consumers of the treatments. This is extremely misleading for consumers looking for raw food choices. In 2008 The Cornucopia Institute helped to support a lawsuit against this.
Dr. Mercola writes that: Jeffrey Smith is clearly one of the leading experts on genetically modified foods in the world, and his not-for-profit organization has amassed an ever growing number of studies illustrating the grave dangers inherent with GMOs. “These guys have gotten bad science down to a science. They are expert at figuring out ways to avoid finding the problems,” Smith says. “When genetically modified bovine growth hormone was being tested, one disgruntled FDA employee evidently stole the documents and made them public. They showed that when Monsanto’s researchers wanted to prove that the [rBGH] injections did not interfere with the cow’s fertility, they secretly introduced cows to the study that were already pregnant before they were ever injected. And when they wanted to show that the pasteurization process destroys the hormone that’s increased in the milk supply, they pasteurized the milk 120 times longer than normal. That destroyed 19 percent of the hormones. So they doused the milk with 147 times the amount of the naturally existing hormone, and heated the milk 120 times longer than normal. Under those bizarre circumstances, they were able to destroy 90 percent of the rBGH hormone, and that’s what the FDA reported – that pasteurization destroys 90 percent of the hormone. “ “In fact, I talked to a former Monsanto scientist who said he was aware that colleagues had fed genetically modified corn to certain rodents and came up with problems,” Smith says. “But instead of pulling the corn off the market or withdrawing the application, they rewrote the study to hide the incidence of the problems. He also said that three of his colleagues who were doing safety studies on Monsanto’s genetically modified bovine growth hormone stopped drinking milk after they saw the changes in the milk.” “In fact, I talked to a former Monsanto scientist who said he was aware that colleagues had fed genetically modified corn to certain rodents and came up with problems,” Smith says. “But instead of pulling the corn off the market or withdrawing the application, they rewrote the study to hide the incidence of the problems. What you must understand is that much of today’s scientific research is no longer performed through public funding, as it were before the 1980's, but rather by the industry itself. In 2009 the American Academy of Environmental Medicine (AAEM) reviewed the available research and issued a memorandum recommending that all doctors prescribe non-GMO diets to all patients because they are causally linked in animal feeding studies to: * Infertility * Immune system problems * Gastrointestinal problems * Organ damage * Dysfunctional regulation of cholesterol and insulin * Accelerated aging They came to this conclusion and issued this recommendation based on scientific evidence, not on individuals who are trying to deny or hide the fact that problems exist. The AAEM is the same organization that identified the Gulf War syndrome, chemical sensitivity and food allergies, and about a dozen other environmental health threats. They are on the frontlines, and the organization is designed to look for and investigate the sources causing health problems in the United States. These are the types of organizations you might want to listen to, as opposed to the Specter’s of the world, who offer little or no actual data to back up their opinions. Even FDA scientists said in a memo that it is the opinion of the technical experts at the agency that genetic engineering is different, and leads to different risks from traditional breeding.” Genetic engineering involves taking genes from various species of plants and animals, putting them into gene guns, and blasting millions of genes into a plate of millions of cells, and then cloning the result into a plant. This can cause hundreds or thousands of mutations up and down the DNA chain. Genes can be switched off, switched on permanently, or change their levels of expression – at random. “Up to 5 percent of the existing natural genes in the plant can change their levels of expression when a single new gene is introduced. In other words, there is a holistic, not well understood response, plant-wide, throughout the entire genome, where maybe hundreds or thousands of genes change their activity when a newcomer is inserted into the DNA,” Smith explains. “So this is totally new, totally different. On top of that, you’re throwing in antibiotic resistant marker genes that are part of the process that might yield antibiotic resistant diseases. This was a major concern by FDA scientists from the British Medical Association. They’re throwing in viruses, viral promoters, which switch on genes at random. They could switch on genes that already exist in the plant or possibly transfer to our own gut bacteria or maybe our own cells, and switch on genes at random, permanently. You can also avoid GM foods by: * Reducing or Eliminating Processed Foods. Some 75 percent of processed foods contain GM ingredients. Use the Non-GMO Shopping Guide, available for free at * Read produce and food labels. When looking at a product label, if any ingredients such as corn flour and meal, dextrin, starch, soy sauce, margarine, and tofu (to name a few) are listed, there's a good chance it has come from GM corn or soy, unless it bears the USDA organic seal. * Buy organic produce. Buying organic is currently the best way to ensure that your food has not been genetically modified. For an in-depth education on the many dangers of GM foods, I highly recommend reading Jeffrey Smith’s books, Seeds of Deception and Genetic Roulette. See also
Organic. There is increasing amount of research appearing in NIH publications and Environmental Health Perspectives ( that non-organic foods account for men's decreased sperm motility, detectable amounts of pesticides in children's urine, and even amniotic fluid levels of pesticides. A recent study published in Environmental Perspectives found that kids who ate fruit grown conventionally actually had traces of pesticides in their urine. When these same kids switched to organic fruits, the level of pesticides plummeted after just five days.
Natural foods and supplements and virtually any forms of over-the-counter, non-pharmaceutical health solution, appear to be under fire from industry. A new study is claiming that there is zero evidence that multivitamins can be effective preventatives of heart disease and cancer in women. The study author, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, a professor of epidemiology and public health at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, states that, "Women can be encouraged by the fact that these vitamins seem to do no harm, but they also seem to confer no benefit," Wassertheil-Smoller says, adding that a healthy diet is "not the same as distilling it into a pill." "Most of the women in the study probably did eat a fairly decent diet, meaning we don't yet necessarily know how vitamins affect women eating poorly," she said. "The other thing is we didn't measure other things about diet such as sense of energy and well-being." Assistant professor of pharmaceutical sciences, Rajat Sethi of Texas A&M University, who attacked the methodology of the new study, said, "There are a lot of variables associated with this study, and unless there is an actual randomized, controlled trial, we can't say anything." Andrew Shao, the vice president for scientific and regulatory affairs at the Council for Responsible Nutrition, said "From a practical standpoint, this study does not change the fact that the majority of consumers could benefit from taking an affordable multivitamin."

Diet habits and education begin in childhood, but schools seem to be taking control. One Arizona school's hunt for Advil in 2003 led to a 13-year-old Savana Redding being strip searched by an assistant principal. The parents sued and lost, but after two rounds of appeal got victory from the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit with a thin 6-5 margin. A student in the South Middleton School District in Pennsylvania received a 10-day school suspension for taking vitamins to school, violating the school's drug policy. Recently schools conducted witch hunts to find peanut butter sandwiches as though they were weapons of mass destruction. New York University sociology professor Richard Arum cautions, "Do we really want to encourage cases where students and parents are seeking monetary damages against educators in such school-specific matters when reasonable people can disagree about what is appropriate under the circumstances?" Meanwhile the FDA prepares to take control of supplements, so that a doctor's prescription may soon be necessery for buying vitamins.
Mainstream medicine erred for decades by insisting and defending the cholesterol theory of heart disease to the detriment of countless people worldwide, is what Dr. Dwight Lundell, a thoracic surgeon who performed over 5,000 open-heart surgeries, stated. Dr. Lundell's new book, "The Great Cholesterol Lie", states that, "It is time to right a grievous wrong. Everyone should question the cholesterol theory for after all, heart disease soared year after year despite millions of statin prescriptions dispensed worldwide. We must stop chasing a tragic, worn out and faulty theory." Dr. Lundell claims that he knows what causes heart disease- inflammation that he saw in arteries of every surgical patient. Unlike treating cholesterol with medication, inflammation is treated simply by elimination of foods that cause it with the addition of essential nutrients bringing inflammation to healthy levels.
Beta-carotene and vitamins C and E are three antioxidants that protect your eyes from vision-altering free-radical damage. "We know that these antioxidants help decrease vision loss in patients with age-related macular degeneration," says Peter Kaiser, M.D., a retinal surgeon at the Cleveland Clinic.
Food and Feed. The great edifice of variety and choice that is an American supermarket turns out to rest on a remarkably narrow biological foundation comprised of a tiny group of plants that is dominated by a single species: Zea mays, the giant tropical grass most Americans know as corn. Corn is what feeds the steer that becomes the steak. Corn feeds the chicken and the pig, the turkey and the lamb, the catfish and the tilapia and, increasingly, even the salmon, a carnivore by nature that the fish farmers are reengineering to tolerate corn. The eggs are made of corn. The milk and cheese and yogurt, which once came from dairy cows that grazed on grass, now typically come from Holsteins that spend their working lives indoors tethered to machines, eating corn. Head over to the processed foods and you find ever more intricate manifestations of corn. A chicken nugget, for example, piles corn upon corn: what chicken it contains consists of corn, of course, but so do most of a nugget’s other constituents, including the modified corn starch that glues the thing together, the corn flour in the batter that coats it, and the corn oil in which it gets fried. Much less obviously, the leavenings and lecithin, the mono-, di-, and triglycerides, the attractive golden coloring, and even the citric acid that keeps the nugget “fresh” can all be derived from corn. To wash down your chicken nuggets with virtually any soft drink in the supermarket is to have some corn with your corn. Since the 1980s virtually all the sodas and most of the fruit drinks sold in the supermarket have been sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)—after water, corn sweetener is their principal ingredient. Grab a beer for your beverage instead and you’d still be drinking corn, in the form of alcohol fermented from glucose refined from corn. Read the ingredients on the label of any processed food and, provided you know the chemical names it travels under, corn is what you will find. For modified or unmodified starch, for glucose syrup and maltodextrin, for crystalline fructose and ascorbic acid, for lecithin and dextrose, lactic acid and lysine, for maltose and HFCS, for MSG and polyols, for the caramel color and xanthan gum, read: corn. Corn is in the coffee whitener and Cheez Whiz, the frozen yogurt and TV dinner, the canned fruit and ketchup and candies, the soups and snacks and cake mixes, the frosting and gravy and frozen waffles, the syrups and hot sauces, the mayonnaise and mustard, the hot dogs and the bologna, the margarine and shortening, the salad dressings and the relishes and even the vitamins. (Yes, it’s in the Twinkie, too.) There are some forty-five thousand items in the average American supermarket and more than a quarter of them now contain corn[26]. “When you look at the (Carbon 13) isotope ratios,” Todd Dawson, a Berkeley biologist who’s done this sort of research, told me, “we North Americans look like corn chips with legs.” Compared to us, Mexicans today consume a far more varied diet: the animals they eat still eat grass (until recently, Mexicans regarded feeding corn to livestock as a sacrilege); much of their protein comes from legumes; and they still sweeten their beverages with cane sugar[26].
BPA is a chemical estrogen that seeps into the foods and drinks that are often found in containers made from these plastics - like baby formula, for example. It's been linked to all manner of hideous maladies: liver problems, brain disorder, heart disease, hormonal disruption, diabetes, and more. BPA can cause young kids to retain toxins in their bodies for abnormally long periods. In all, over 130 studies in the last decade have connected the development of serious health issues with BPA. Recent studies have shown that it doesn't take much BPA to start having a negative impact on health – even doses lower than the FDA's standards can be harmful. Developmental biologist Laura Vandenberg of Tufts University says that the dangers of BPA are "becoming undeniable."
The FDA still insists it's safe, based on two studies that were funded by the American Chemistry Council (ACC) – an organization made up of the leaders of the very companies that profit from the manufacture of this dangerous chemical. In fact, Rochelle Tyl, who authored BOTH the ACC studies backing up the safety of BPA, admitted that the report on which the FDA based its decision-making shouldn't be taken at face value. The ContraCostaTimes reported that Tyl admitted that "there were errors and inconsistencies in the 2008 report that the FDA used as the foundation for its findings." And she did this in front of the very international consortium that's working on a statement condemning the FDA's stance.
HFCS- HealthDay News reported on January 28, 2009 -- Almost half of tested samples of commercial high-fructose corn syrup contained mercury, which was also found in nearly a third of 55 popular brand-name food and beverage products where HFCS is the first- or second-highest labeled ingredient, according to two new U.S. studies. "Mercury is toxic in all its forms. Given how much high-fructose corn syrup is consumed by children, it could be a significant additional source of mercury never before considered. We are calling for immediate changes by industry and the [U.S. Food and Drug Administration] to help stop this avoidable mercury contamination of the food supply," the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy's Dr. David Wallinga, a co-author of both studies, said in a prepared statement[27]. In the first study, published in Environmental Health, researchers found detectable levels of mercury in nine of 20 samples of commercial HFCS. IATP's Ben Lilliston also told HealthDay that the Environmental Health findings were based on information gathered by the FDA in 2005. Renee Dufault, the lead author in the first study (”Mercury from chlor-alkali plants: measured concentrations in food product sugar,” published today in Environmental Health [PDF; abstract here]), was working at the FDA when the commercial HFCS was tested. The IATF release reports, “While the FDA had evidence that commercial HFCS was contaminated with mercury four years ago, the agency did not inform consumers, help change industry practice or conduct additional testing”[28]. The second study, from the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP), a non-profit watchdog group, found that nearly one in three of 55 brand-name foods contained mercury. The chemical was found most commonly in HFCS-containing dairy products, dressings and condiment products "bought off the shelf in the autumn of 2008," Lilliston stated[29].
Recognize Hunger - If you have a craving for sweets, imagine eating a large, sizzling steak instead. "If you're truly hungry, the steak will sound good, and you should eat," says Richard Feinman, Ph.D., a professor of biochemistry at SUNY Downstate Medical Center, in New York City. "If it doesn't sound good, your brain is playing tricks on you." His advice: Change your environment, which can be as easy as doing 15 pushups or finding a different task to focus on.
Class action lawsuits have been filed against some major grocery store chains for not clearly labeling the salmon "color added". The chains followed up quickly by labeling all such salmon as "color added". "However, Smith & Lowney persisted with the suit for damages, but a Seattle judge dismissed (...)(the case) , ruling that enforcement of the applicable food laws was up to government and not individuals."[25]
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This page is NOT medical advice! Refer to your health care provider for any questions about your health.

According to several published sources, we were teetering on the brink of a deadly pandemic in January of 2009 because seasonal flu vaccines manufactured by US-based pharmaceutical company Baxter International had been contaminated with the deadly avian flu virus called H5N1[69]. The contaminated vaccine made by a Baxter facility in Orth-Donau, Austria was shipped to numerous distributors in Austria, Germany, Slovenia, and the Czech Republic. Were it not for the good sense of a lab in the Czech Republic that inoculated ferrets with the serum to check its safety, we might now be facing a global pandemic of avian flu - of which there is a 60% mortality rate.[70] The fact that the ferrets died soon after they were given the vaccine raised a red flag to scientists and government authorities. Ferrets do not die when exposed to seasonal flu viruses. What makes this situation even more chilling is that the avian flu virus by itself does not easily infect people. But when mixed with an easily transmissible strain like the seasonal flu virus, the hybrid strain can be just as contagious. How could Baxter have let this happen? Was it intentional as some people believe? Even the respected Dr. Mercola has his suspicions[71]. A pandemic would certainly trigger a worldwide demand for the avian flu vaccine. Baxter happens to be one of only six international companies licensed to develop flu vaccines. If a pandemic occurred...well, you can do the math in terms of profits to be made. The other possibility is that Baxter was not following its own stringent biosafety protocol to prevent cross-contamination of infectious materials. This protocol, called Biosafety Level 3 (BSL3), if followed, makes it virtually impossible for a situation like this to occur.[70] Could a major pharmaceutical company really be so careless in handling an infectious agent that could possibly kill tens of millions of people? If so, should they even be allowed to remain in business? Christopher Bona, Baxter's Director of Global Bioscience Communications said the cross-contamination occurred as "the result of a combination of just the process itself, (and) technical and human error in this procedure"[72]. He declined to say more because he did not want to reveal proprietary secrets about their production process. The Western media seem to be helping them in keeping the story quiet. Has anyone really heard much about this terrifying near miss from the major news outlets in the US? Do we know if any Baxter employee or executive will be held accountable? Most importantly, can we be assured that this kind of mistake (if it was a mistake) can't and won't happen again?

We predict (2009) that the so-called Swine Flu pandemic (named "Mexican Flu" in Europe) of early 2009 will show that countries with lower-density living conditions and better hygiene habits will not have a serious problem, despite the increased stock market prices of the drug companies. The CDC states that about 36,000 people die from flu-related causes each year in the USA, and thousands die from flu vaccines.
UPDATE: As of January 2010, more than 60 million Americans were vaccinated for the swine flu, but many more millions refused. According to the World Health Organization, millions of people were expected to die if not vaccinated, but this did not happen. The truth is coming out.
Influenza-like illness (ILI), also known as acute respiratory infection (ARI) and flu-like syndrome. Technically, any clinical diagnosis of influenza is a diagnosis of ILI, not of influenza. Influenza in humans is subject to clinical surveillance by a global network of more than 110 National Influenza Centers. These centers receive samples obtained from patients diagnosed with ILI, and test the samples for the presence of an influenza virus. In the United States during the 2008 influenza season through April 18, out of 183,839 samples tested and reported to the CDC, only 25,925 (14.1%) were positive for influenza.[79] Except perhaps during the peak of a major outbreak of influenza, most cases of ILI are not due to influenza.[78,79] During an epidemic, 60-70% of patients with a clear influenza-like illness actually have influenza.[80] News reported that A nationwide study of health care workers with Swine Flu found many didn't do enough to protect themselves against the virus.
According to the study, only half always wore gloves. Even fewer routinely wore other protection around patients who might have the virus.
Frequent hand washing with soap and water or alcohol based products also prevents spreading of infections like Swine Flu.
But specialists warn people are at risk in any place where there a large gatherings of people.
Swine Flu spreads from respiratory droplets from coughing or sneezing. Infectious disease specialists say if you're unprotected and within six feet of a person with Swine Flu for roughly an hour you have a one in three chance of getting Swine Flu from those respiratory droplets.

Scientists have discovered that exposure to a common pollutant may make people more likely to experience severe symptoms from swine flu — and it’s a pollutant emitted in large quantities by coal-burning power plants and other industrial facilities.
The culprit is arsenic, a highly poisonous semi-metal which, according to a new study by researchers at the Marine Biological Laboratory and Dartmouth Medical School, compromises a person’s ability to mount an immune response to the H1N1 swine flu virus.
Most disturbingly, the study — published last month in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives — found that arsenic can weaken the immune response to swine flu even in the low-level exposure levels that are commonly found in contaminated drinking water.

April 14, 2009, the Minnesota Department of Health stated that a man, whose age and country of origin was not identified, with symptoms of polio disease, died last month. The officials said that he was infected with a strain of polio used in an oral, live-virus polio vaccine that was discontinued in the U.S. in 2000, suggesting that he caught the infection from someone else who had received the live vaccine before it was pulled from the US market, or from a vaccine used in some developing countries, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

A new group called People for Immunization (PFI) will be traveling across the US in 2009 to reassure the public about the safety and necessity of vaccines. Before they give you their sales pitch, let them answer the questions raised in this article.

A study by Dr. Avni Y. Joshi, a fellow at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., found hospitalization rates higher in kids who get flu shots. The study showed that out of 263 children aged 6 months to 18 years who had visited the Mayo Clinic between 1999 and 2006 with laboratory-confirmed influenza, the children who received the annual inactivated flu vaccine were almost three times more likely to be hospitalized than those who were not inoculated. (Presented at American Thoracic Society's annual meeting 2009.)

William Campbell Douglass II, MD has written the book The Health Benefits of Tobacco about the surprising health BENEFITS of smoking.

"For every inspiring story of a person cured from cancer made possible by early detection, there are untold stories of many more who suffer from the side effects of unnecessary invasive procedures stemming from false positive test results." (From USA Today, by primary care Dr. Kevin Pho.)
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Psychology, Psychiatry and Behavior
Trisoma does not provide psychotherapy, psychological nor medical services. Refer to your health care provider for any questions about your mental or physical health. One psychological phenomenon that is detrimental to physical rehabilitation is when the patient's condition is a characteristic of the social structure. When the patient's pain is reduced and function is increased, the patient's increased independence threatens his or her dysfunctional behavior and status in the social structure.
Watching TV Changes Your Brain Chemistry: Dr. Mercola wrote that: While much of the TV debate focuses on advertising messages and the impact of violent or sexually explicit programming on young minds, there's an even more disturbing aspect to television. As it turns out, TV may be harmful no matter what programs your kids are watching or what ads they're exposed to! Yes, television in and of itself is one of the most powerful brainwashing devices there is. According to research by Dr. Aric Sigman, a British psychologist, watching TV actually causes physiological changes – mainly changes in your brain chemistry – and there's nothing beneficial about them. These changes have little to do with the content you're watching, but rather the fact that when you're watching a TV or computer screen, you're in essence entraining your brain to function and process information differently. Watching a TV (or computer screen) produces an almost narcotic effect on your brain, actually numbing areas that would be stimulated by other activities, like reading. And, the longer you watch, the easier your brain slips into a receptive, passive mode, meaning that messages are streamed into your brain without any participation from you. This of course is every advertiser's dream, and accounts for much of the success companies achieve by putting ads on TV. Watching TV also disrupts the production of the hormone melatonin, according to Dr. Sigman, which could be playing a role in sleep disturbances and even causing early puberty in adolescents.
The 15 Potential Side Effects of Watching TV
Through his research, Dr. Sigman has identified 15 negative effects that he believes can be associated with watching television: 1. Obesity 2. Trouble healing 3. Heart trouble 4. Decreased metabolism 5. Eyesight damage 6. Alzheimer's disease 7. Decreased attention span 8. Hormone disturbances 9. Cancer 10. Early puberty 11. Autism 12. Sleep difficulties 13. Increased appetite 14. Limited brain growth 15. Diabetes
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Dubious Claims, Quacks, Frauds
We believe that a major factor that damages the credibility of massage therapy is when some promote questionable theories or practices, such as claiming, "this will push the toxins out of your body and move your energy."

It is incredible how American voters have been led to believe that government can fabricate money and provide an efficient health care system. Many insurance companies, that cover millions of dollars in treatments for patients, have doctors leaving their programs in droves, due to decreasing compensation. Government-run Medicare may be the best example of this. Despite these facts, people seem to think that they will get "free" healthcare from the government.
The Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA), which is noted for pushing drugs as treatment for asthma, and won't even mention Buteyko or other eucapnic breathing therapies, is requesting readers to sign a National Health Council petition "for effective and affordable health care NOW!" The NHC "Put Patients First" organization, which has a round, O-like logo, has "Sign Our Petition for Change!" to "demonstrate to elected officials that the public believes we need a health care system that will Put Patients First." However their goals are to:
Cover Everyone
Curb Costs Responsibly
Abolish Exclusions of Pre-Existing Conditions
Eliminate Lifetime Caps
Ensure Respect at the End of Life. (but not life-saving procedures?)
However there seems to me no discussion for how millions of illegal aliens can continue to receive free health care, and the average person can receive $3-million cancer treatments.

Tachyons. A search of the web will reveal some to claims that tachyons convert the Subtle Organizing Energy Fields into the exact frequencies needed to maintain and restore perfect energetic health of the liver. Some companies sell vibrators or water "containing tachyons." Neal Mahr of Freedom Unlimited actually has been selling $175 vibrators that appear to be $15 vibrators. (Click here for photo.) In 2006 Mr. Mahr stated, "The Tachyonic Massager has 20 tachyons in the motor. Tachyons are particles that move faster than the speed of light and they contain a lot of life force or "chi". It was discovered that if you oscillate tachyons the amount of chi energy that is present is magnified greatly. Therefore this little device is far more effective than a simple vibrator for relieving blocked energy that occurs as pain."
Daniel Nye of Tachyon Energy Research ( Tel.310-618-8550) wrote, "The Takionic Coil is flexible and can be wrapped around the body, for healing/ energy balancing, or other objects, such as a water bottle, to energize its contents. It would make our bottled Takionic water; however, it could get to be as potent as one serving of the T. Water, which would be approx. 5-10 drops. The T. Water is a purified water that has gone through the Tachyon Process, a quantum physics process, having to do with: geometric shapes, sound vibration, color & light (all of the purest & highest frequencies). Since water is a wonderful, super-conductor of energy (thoughts, electricity, etc.), we have found the T. Water to be the best, if not, most popular, of the Takionic Line. The Takionic Pocket Massager works will with energizing/ balancing the body's acupressure points/ meridians. Hence, we sell a great book, as reference, "Acupressure's Potent Points", and is highly recommended, in order to be able to use the Massager correctly. Otherwise, it can be used to pulsate the tachyon energy onto areas of pain, for pain management. With all of our Tachyon Products, one has the ability to be creative; therefore, the sky is the limit, as far as healing. If you would like to use it as an adult toy, it is completely up to the you, the user. Tachyon could be considered "energy medicine".
If you ask any physicist, they will tell you that tachyons are theoretical subatomic particles that (as of 2008) have not even been confirmed to exist, much less have been installed in "proprietary" household products. A PhD in theoretical physics responded, "Evidence of their existence has never been observed. Mr Mahr would be very famous by now if he had been able to isolate tachyons."

Barefoot compression massage is very effective, however there are many different barefoot modalities and techniques, so make sure that you find a qualified practitioner, and ask enough questions to your satisfaction. If they mention centrifugal or centripetal forces, then ask them what is spinning! When an aerospace engineer, educated in orbital mechanics, wrote to Deepfeet, Ms. Hardee and to Adri's video on youtube, to question their claims of "Gravitational centripetal and centrifugal movements," these responses were received: -2- -3- . Trisoma believes that embellished, improper use of technical terms may impress ignorant people, but it can greatly damage the credibility of the art and science of massage therapy and bodywork.

Aromatherapy is being researched with positive results, but it is difficult to assess various potions and nostrums. Use your sense before you spend much money or time on new methods.
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Some experts recommend optima as following:
C-reactive less than 10 mg/L, Albumin greater than 35g/L,
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86. to 100000. Further references are in html title blocks!

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